What are "steroids"?
What are "steroids"?
The word "steroid" is the name for a group of chemical compounds,
having a very similar structure. Most people know three
type of steroids:
1) Preparations of the type of hydrocortisone: known under the medical name
"corticosteroids", these steroids are contained in various creams and
ointments intended for skin care, more precisely for combating various
rashes and itching. Two common trademarks - Cortaid (R)
and Lanacort (R). Corticosteroids are not addictive.
2) Female sex hormones. Medical names are estrogen and progesterogens.
These steroids determine the development of secondary sexual characteristics in women
and maintain the functioning of the organs of the female reproduction system.
Estrogens and progesterogens are active ingredients in contraceptives
drugs. Estrogens and progesterogens do not cause addiction.
3) Male sex hormones. The medical name is androgens. Androgene
called testosterone is a major player in development
male secondary sexual signs and maintenance in a workable
the state of the organs of the male reproduction system. More recently
It has been found that testosterone drugs are addictive.
These drugs are also known as "anabolic steroids."
There are very few members of the different classes of steroids
chemical differences, and under certain conditions an organism can transform
one type of steroids in another. This is described in more detail in the chapter
"How are the anabolic steroids affect the sexual functions of the male body?"
What are "anabolic"?
The term "anabolic" describes any substance that can support
muscle tissue gain or accumulation of nitrogen in muscle protein.
In the normal state the organism constantly destroys and removes the old ones
cells and tissues and replaces them with new ones. The process of destruction and removal called "catabolism" in medicine. Anabolism is the process of building
new cells and fabrics to replace the old ones. In normally functioning
the body of these two groups of processes maintained in equilibrium.
Muscle and bone tissues, thus, are constantly updated and
nor increase or decrease of mass does not occur.
Reinforced physical exercises are anabolic because
increase muscle mass. A protein-rich diet is also considered
Anabolic steroids increase muscle mass. Testosterone is a natural anabolic
steroid Higher testosterone levels in the male body
in comparison with female provides a higher percentage of muscle
masses in men.
For some time it was thought that anabolic and androgenic steroids
- these are different things and therefore you can develop new types of steroids,
which will simply increase muscle mass without side masculine
effects However, it turned out that the anabolic and androgenic effects
are caused by the same drugs, but in different tissues. So
In the way, any steroids that increase muscle mass, cause
side masculine effects.
Where are the anabolic steroids taken?
The body produces testosterone in a natural way, but natural
Testosterone is not used in medicine. In normally functioning
The body of testosterone is constantly secreted in the blood by the pituitary gland. In
The male body, in addition, testosterone is produced by the testicles.
Testosterone reaches various parts of the body, works, as well
then destroyed by enzymes.
When the male body reaches the end of puberty, the amount
Testosterone increases sharply and keeps at a high level of four
up to six months, after which it returns to the normal level.
During this period, zones of limb growth are closed, voice is lowered,
begin to grow hair on the face and the genitals increase. Exactly
This wave of testosterone completes puberty of the male body.
In some men, this testosterone does not occur. When
The role of testosterone was clarified, researchers tried to treat belatedness
in maturation, prescribing to testosterone. It turned out that
A single dose of testosterone, even very large, is so rapidly destroyed
enzymes that does not have an effect. To use for these
The goals are natural testosterone, a person needs to be placed under the dropper
with testosterone for four months! The method of trial and error was found
A way to change the testosterone molecule in order to prolong it
his life in the body.
There are many types of anabolic steroids
suitable for the treatment of various diseases. Previously anabolic
steroids were isolated from various tissues of animals, now they are synthesized .
Why is anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids allow athletes when exercising differently
the types of sports are much faster to collect the necessary muscle mass.
Many athletes consider that they are solely responsible for their achievements
the use of steroids.
It has not been proven that steroids increase muscle by themselves
weight athletes during training. Gains may well be called up
purely psychological effect. In sixteen experiments with steroids
nine showed their effectiveness as a means of building up the masses,
the other seven did not produce any result. At the same time anabolic
steroids are widely used as a means to build muscle
mass after some surgical operations and treatment of cancer, with
which the patient experiences loss of muscle mass. This topic is in detail
is considered in the section "Steroids and growth of body tissues".
At first only in some sports, athletes were abusing steroids
to improve the quality of the workout. But over time, abuse
steroids have spread to other types of sports. Now only
two Olympic disciplines are considered "pure": female hockey on
grass and figure skating. This topic is discussed in detail in this section
The abuse of steroids is now not limited to the sporting world.
Recently, the number of young people who use steroids is growing, not
while doing sports. During the polls this group of people says,
that steroids use "for health". Steroids help pick up
muscle mass with intensive training, however, there is no confirmation
that large doses of steroids consumed without training help
increase muscle Overweight people not involved in sports
are at risk of high blood pressure and other problems
with the heart However, there is no confirmation that intensified sports,
with steroids or without, prolong life or reduce the risk of illness.
There is evidence that excessive amounts of steroids may prematurely
stop the growth of the body, cause heart attacks, various diseases
liver, atrophy of male genital organs and many other effects.
This topic is discussed in detail in the section "The effects of steroids on
an organism ".
Oral steroids can be detected in the body in a few weeks
after discontinuation of use. This time is enough for medical
goals, but still a bit compared to injections.
Athletes are primarily experimented with oral anabolics.
They are convenient to store and eat, but they have a bad effect on the liver
in addition to the usual set of anabolic side effects. Side by side
The effects are described in detail in the section "Whether steroids cause damage
Athletes usually continue to take oral medications even if
begin to use injectable steroids. Some are enjoying
Oral to slip through a doping check: most
Oral preparations do not live longer in the body for injection. When
Athletes approaching the athlete begins to use short-lived
drugs, then, four or six weeks before the start, ceases
Use at all so that the urine is clean at check.
Many athletes and coaches are convinced that they need to be used at the same time
and oral and injectable drugs according to a specific scheme. This one
The topic is detailed in the section "How are anabolics used by athletes?"
Injection anabolics are administered intramuscularly, not intravenously. They are
slowly secreted from the muscle into the bloodstream, spread through the body
and can be detected in a few months after use.
At the chemical level, injectable drugs are better absorbed by the body
than oral. Therefore, they are preferred by those who use anabolic drugs
long time However, any injections have their own specifics problems.
The injection of the drug bypasses the natural protective mechanisms of the body.
If someone accidentally swallowed more than necessary, he can at least
the least to cause vomiting, before the amount is sufficient enough,
to cause death. If someone inhales a poisonous smoke or evaporation,
cough reflex will work and prevent poisoning. But if someone
I put myself too much, it will not be so much to get it out of the body.
When injections are done in a hospital, a lot of attention is paid
sterilization of the equipment and skin before the injection. Without this training
the needle can carry dirt and bacteria, passing the protective barrier of the skin.
Hepatitis and various inflammations are the usual results of poor disinfection.
There are even two cases of AIDS among bodybuilders registered.